Crazy Times with zxfer

I’ve started using zxfer that @AllanJude referred me to recently. It does a nice job. My main difficulty was how to get it to work efficiently over the 10Mbps that’s my effective DSL speed.

First, I made a copy of zxfer (zmxfer) that incorporates mbuffer. This is a crude hack, but helps me ensure that I’m getting around the mysterious hanging transmits I have previously seen sending zfs to zfs. Mbuffer seems to smooth this out well.

$LZFS send -i "$copyprev" "$copysrc" \| \
/usr/local/bin/mbuffer -q -s 128k -m 128M \
| /usr/local/bin/mbuffer -q -s 128k -m 128M \
| $RZFS receive $option_F "$copydest" \
|| { echo "Error when zfs send/receiving."; beep; exit 1; }

My off-site transfer script ssh’s to the primary backup server, queries a list of zfs filesystems to replicate and copies that back:

#~/bin/bash
CMDLIST=/tmp/zxfer_cmds.txt
XFPRE=/tmp/zxfer_batch_
SK=.ssh/backup_dsa
rm -f /tmp/zxfer_cmds*
if [ `ls /tmp/xfer-* 2>/dev/null | wc -l` -gt 0 ] ; then
   echo "Previous transfer in progress, bye."
   exit 1
fi
ssh -i $SK juno ./mk_fs_list.sh || \
   ( echo "Crap, didn't generate file-system list, bye."; exit 1 )
scp -i $SK juno:/tmp/vol_list /tmp || \
   ( echo "Crap, didn't copy file-system list, bye."; exit 1 )

We need to turn that list of filesystems into actual transfer commands. I create a file that full of the commands to execute later:

while read FS ; do
   [ -z "$FS" ] && continue;
   PFS=`dirname $FS`
   if [ "$PFS" == "." ] ; then 
      PFS=tank
   else
      PFS="tank/$PFS"
   fi
   echo "[ ! -f /tmp/stop-xfer ] && sudo zmxfer -dFPsv \
 -O \"-i .ssh/backup_dsa ctbu@juno sudo \" \
 -N tank/$FS $PFS"
done < /tmp/vol_list > $CMDLIST

You might think, “what a lot of sudo!” It’s good practice. I have dedicated a backup user to do this instead of root. I’ve configured the necessary sudoers file entries to make this work.

TIP: disable requiretty in sudoers [S.O.]

We want to increase the parallelism of these zfs transfers as much as possible. The time it takes to transfer zero-length snapshots in serial is prohibitive.

L=`wc -l < $CMDLIST`
Q=$[ $[ $L + 8 ] / 8 ]
split -l $Q $CMDLIST $XFPRE

Now we run these in screen, partly because ssh and sudo and mbuffer all tend to get a bit grouchy if they can’t agree on if the really need a tty or not…and mostly because I want to keep tabs on where any transfer hangups are. This keeps script output collated. First we test for and fire up a detached screen as necessary:

screen -ls xfer | fgrep -q '.xfer' || screen -dmS xfer
sleep 1

And then we fill the screen with some commands. (We need to have a .screenrc that defines eight screens.)

i=0
for x in $XFPRE* ; do
   echo "rm /tmp/xfer-$i" >> $x
   cmd="touch /tmp/xfer-$i"
   screen -S xfer -p$i -X stuff $"$cmd\n"
   screen -S xfer -p$i -X stuff $"time bash -x $x\n"
   i=$[ $i + 1 ]
done

Once this pxfer-lists.sh script of mine is run, you can connect to the screen using:

screen -S xfer -x

And watch the scripts do their stuff. (That stuff command is actually a true screen directive: stuff $crap into terminal $p.)

I’ve been able to get my transfer time down from 140 minutes to about 14 minutes. Also many of the backups I started transferring I figured out how to reduce in scope by stopping hourly snapshots on file systems that don’t require them.

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Mbuffer Trickery

Am rather disappointed that mbuffer isn’t shipped in CentOS 7. Easy enough to install, but seriously useful to have updated software in this day in age.

Anyhow, to use mbuffer for a long transfer where an outgoing connection was the only option, I finally found a situation where I wanted to use a fifo.

dmzhost$ mkfifo /tmp/tarfifo
lanhost$ ssh dmzhost "cat /tmp/tarfifo" | mbuffer -P90 -m512M | tar xf -
dmzhost$ tar cf - pub | mbuffer -P90 -m128M > /tmp/tarfifo

And there we have it.